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Obesity

How Thin People Think

How Thin People Think

As part of the Precision Nutrition course there are some great book recommendations, my new favourite is The Beck Diet Solution (Beck, J) which basically looks at the inclusion of cognitive therapy techniques to help you learn to think differently enabling changes in eating behaviour...

Mindful or Mindless.... How much thought do you put into your Nutrition?

Mindful or Mindless.... How much thought do you put into your Nutrition?

I came across the concept of Mindful v. Mindless about three years ago. The concept was related to exercise. I'm afraid to admit a lot of the exercise I was prescribing at that time was verging towards mindless. In fact, even I was exercising like that to some extent. When I sat and thought about this, my mind turned to nutrition...

What Does The Indicator Light On My Dashboard Tell Me?

What Does The Indicator Light On My Dashboard Tell Me?

Indicator lights on the dashboard of your car telling you something is wrong are just annoying, right? But they are there for a reason (apart from squeezing money from you for some expensive service)! They blink away in front of you...

Liquid Calories Add Up Fast

Liquid Calories Add Up Fast

When people are filling in food journals I always remind them to add all liquids ....not just water but juices ( we recently discussed that  fruit juices could do without being in the fridge) , pop ( same as fruit juices) , alcohol, tea, coffee, yes calories are lurking every where especially fat and sugary ones...

Lean My Kitchen Up

Lean My Kitchen Up

If you buy it you will eat it. Eventually. If it's in your house you will eat it. Eventually. If it's in your desk draw you will eat it. Sooner or Later. If it's on your desk you will definitely eat it sooner. If some one gives you a food gift you will probably eat it. So if you can't resist temptation but can you minimize your intake of less than lean foods...

A Client's Journey Part 2: "Getting Going"

A Client's Journey Part 2: "Getting Going"

This is going to be a monthly feature probably. We are still following one particular client, this journey started many moons ago and still brings something new to the table each time we visit it. Imagine how you could be inspired by reading the words of someone who actually went on a real weight loss journey, after all the words are the words of a real life person like you or me...

Don't Eat Till You are Full : 80% is Full Enough

Don't Eat Till You are Full : 80% is Full Enough

Recently we were discussing the speed of eating and highlighting how few people take the time to eat slowly and find enjoyment in their nutrition...the premise was simple eating fast encourages over eating which in turn assists weight gain. This is a sort of part 3 to our 2 previous discussions related to this area...

Eat Slowly Lose Weight (Part 2)

Eat Slowly Lose Weight (Part 2)

"Fast Food", indeed lots out our nutritional intake has become "fast" , everything has to be eaten/ available/ done in the quickest possible time...we previously discussed that speed eating (maybe like speed dating?) is just not good for you on many levels. Most of our meals never reach twenty minutes...

Everyone gets on of these along the way.. the PLATEAU !

There are many health and fitness magazines out there, they tend to be heavy on advice on " how to get a six pack" or how to get a " beach body in 14 days" or how " to look like Arnie " , I guess having this on the front page sells magazines , however, real nitty gritty stuff/ subjects    gets passed by. One subject that receives scant attention is one many if not all people on a change journey experience. Yup the dreaded plateau. CALORIE DEFECIT

To get weight loss you need to create a calorie deficit. Many times ( and I have said this about myself!!) clients will tell me they are doing everything thats being asked of them but are not or have stopped losing weight. This situation could be called weight stable or a eucaloric state where intake and expenditure are equal.There are 3 possibilities here.

1. They are consuming more than they think

2. They are exercising less than they think

3. A combination of 1 and 2.

INTAKE

If you are not keeping a journal or counting calories in some manner  then you may be totally unaware of where you are at in terms of calories per food or calories per portion.Raising awareness may be needed, clients may need to learn how to find out how to understand calorie content of foods, especially ones that they consume frequently. People can be shocked to find for example that a large latte has more fat and calories than a piece of deep fried chicken.Another big issue is the amount of calories that get forgotten about that are obtained via liquid intake.People often underestimate calories drunk...especially when it comes to alcohol, fruit juice, milk...some of these are hard for clients to remove. Journalling can also be improved to help identify eating patterns, making them more accurate can turn up many hidden calories and show where food is being consumed. ( e.g. restaurants where sometimes even " healthy " options have become calorie laden)

ENERGY OUTPUT

A plateau can occur in a number of ways. Most people when they start to loose weight enjoy some success especially if they have received both nutritional guidance and have started to follow a well designed individualized exercise programme, however, after changes occur some form of stalemate comes along . This can be very frustrating for the client " I have been working so hard"....this would be a time to change the programme around.As weight loss occurs then changes occur in the physiology of the individual, as this happens the energy cost per exercise goes down.This is for two reasons a) the person is lighter and they burn less with each activity and b) the metabolism slows due to a decrease in calorie intake...

As such the same programme that got the client to loose weight may not continue to help them on their journey. The physical changes that have taken place have altered the clients need  for energy intake or expenditure.

Often clients , product manufacturer`s , textbooks, websites, " experts" all over estimate the amount of calories used during exercise. People get very hung up on " what machine burns the most calories", well if you are just starting out it probably doesn't really matter.  If you  are only going to start off with 20 mins of cardio 10 extra calories isn't really a big deal.However seeing big numbers on the display of a machine can lead to a false position leading to actually increasing calorie intake in an over compensation .

PLATEAU THOUGHTS

As clients lose weight the amount of calories they need per se becomes reduced.This is because as there is less body  to actually burn calories.You could say that with every % point they decrease they will burn 1% less calories.In effect if the person wants to lose 10% of their weight they need to find a way of living on 10 % less calories.In "Best Weight" by Freedhoff and Sharma they ask how  to determine if a plateau has been reached. Two questions should be examined;

1. Can the client eat any fewer calories and still enjoy life?

2.Could the client exercise more and still enjoy life?

If the answer to either is " yes" then they have reached a plateau. If the answer is " no" and weight hasn't changed for 6 weeks then they have reached a floor where no further loss of weight is likely.

In summary plateau`s can be overcome , it can be a very frustrating time for both the client  and the professional alike..when this stage occurs its time to make changes..either to the volume of exercise or the nutritional part of the equation. The latter may be achieved by keeping a more accurate journal and an increased awareness of portions and calorific amounts of foods  and liquids consumed.

Why I was resisting keeping a food journal and what I did?

Until recently I had not allowed myself the benefit of having a " trainer" . Obviously having been a trainer for ten years I have often asked , indeed even given out deluxe food journals for people to keep. From a casual observation it does appear the people who are more likely to fill in a journal are also more likely to get results! So when i told my trainer that I wanted to lose weight I was told to fill out a food journal, a not unreasonable request especially when the trainer knows I also ask the same of my clients. This would be easy I thought (I had never kept one previously despite once previously being asked, I wriggled out of it) , indeed I had wondered many times before  why people didn't, fill them despite the obvious benefits. The diary can show behavioural and organizational issues that a client may have, I sometimes ask people to add in emotional feelings associated with meals..." how does it feel when you eat that"? This can show patterns of non diet behaviours and highlight alternative choices that might be helpful in eliminating negative emotions or reducing calorie intake.

Making people log the times of the food can show for example how hunger has a role in disorganized eating.. we can see for example common patterns arising that contribute to poor eating patterns.

Most commonly ( and also from my observations) the following issues shown by the food journal that don't help " organized eating" :

Not eating within 30 mins of waking ( so many people resist this simple great start to a a good days nutrition)

Going longer than 3 hours between meals and snacks

The journal can also highlight simple issues ( too few calories per meal ), not including protein in all meals and snacks...

But like my clients I found myself resisting keeping a journal, was this going to be used to judge me, show that I could improve my own nutrition..was it going to take up too much of my time, so I had a decision to make. What to do?

However I considered the benefits..it was going to provide me with calorie level feedback ( after all slight weight loss was my goal)  and as such decision making, it would help me show patterns that may be compromising my efforts, ( I can track my hunger back to questions like " why did I get hungry"?) and it was going to help me create new habits ( it was even making me think..." if I eat this I have to write it down... do I want it that much?)

So I did it and guess what.... I kept it going, after all we are all creatures of habit, initially what was daunting became my new habit, in addition raising my level of food consciousness started to bring results, so far I am proud of my efforts, in future I will work on strategies to help my clients become more compliant in keeping their own journals.

I like the term " best weight"...

Recently I joined the Canadian Obesity Network, something that I stumbled on during my quest for more information on all subjects health related, they produce a neat little read entitled " Best Weight " ( Freedhoff and Sharma). I want to pick out some of the best bits that I think are helpful to those looking to loose weight...

I always like to see if my client has realistic expectations and a plan, more often that not I find that they don't have either. Further questioning may be needed to learn about motives and objectives.Aesthetic reasons can often be a prime motivator and these could be short term ( my daughter is getting married and i want to get into a specific suit) or long term goal like improve self esteem or finding a grew partner...However successful weight loss for aesthetic reasons may be harder to achieve than doing the same for health reasons. If weight loss is driven by self esteem or concerns over  body image then these issues need to be addressed first. To assist in that sometimes I refer clients out to a life coach...

If the goal is health related weight loss its nice to share with the clients what to expect, maybe increased energy or less knee pain....I try to define objective quality of life goals that can be obtained in a reasonable time..success should be measured by achievement of these goals rather than actual weight lost.Maybe we should take away that the goal of weight loss is not about numbers on a scale but to reduce health risks and improve quality of life. Even a 5 % weight loss can produce measurable medical results!

In goal terms its probably best that they are as least daunting and obtainable as possible...rapid weight loss cannot be sustained, it can be achieved short term , but has a negative affect on lean tissue in the body. Sustaining weight loss is more important than achieving massive numbers..its better to lose 50% less than too regain it all and sometimes more back...

This leads me to the concept of " best weight". I do like this concept, its refreshing and I am surprised that I have never come across it before. Its so simple.The book describes " best weight " as a non statistical goal that is easy to set. Clients can take their weight down to any weight they put their minds too, but to maintain that weight they need to enjoy the lifestyle that got them there.

The term " best weight" is the weight achieved whilst living the healthiest lifestyle that they can truly enjoy. They maintain that there is a point when you can no longer eat less or exercise more and still like their life. The weight achieved whilst still liking their life is the " best weight " achieved without further intervention...and that is the lowest weight currently possible.For sustained weight loss the client should consume the smallest number of calories that allows them to enjoy each day.With exercise clients should do as much as possible, but there is a maximum above which the person will not do, chances are they will come to hate exercise, then they quit.

Eating less and exercising more in a situation that the patient doesn't enjoy is the definition if a diet which is why 95% of them fail as the client returns back to previous lifestyle choices. A healthy lifestyle is the smallest number of calories and the greatest amount of exercise that a person can enjoy.

Ref: Best Weight . A practical Guide to obesity management ( Yoni Freedhoff and Ayra Sharma . ) Published by The Canadian Obesity Network

Compliance...why can't people just do it?

This is one of my favourite topics. I talk over the " compliance " issue more than any other subject and with a massive wide variety of people. For me its one of the hardest factors to "make sense" of, because really in black and white terms failure to do something that has been suggested to you as health beneficial is only going to cause your problems later down the line. Its sad in a way and frustrating for both client and trainer and I still have trouble understanding the root of this issue. I heard a recent story about a recovering heart attack patient who was not taking his prescribed medication because he didn't like pills,  compliance here was a potential  life and death issue  .I  guess people are so complex there is no one particular reason why this situation existed. Maybe he just didn't see the benefit, to most it appears black and white, take the pill, live, don't take the pill , potentially die.

However, there is growing consensus among researchers that the behavior of the health care provider has a significant influence on patient adherence. Specifically, the health care professional’s ability to communicate and explain information while expressing warmth and concern for the patient appears to be associated with increasing patient adherence. Which from a personal training perspective makes the job just that little bit harder. Some people just don't see the benefit of " extra " anything  or indeed " less " of something , getting them to even go to bed 30 mins earlier is like asking them to amputate an arm...we have become so stuck in out habits that all change however small is resisted. However small amounts of change can bring big returns.

 

WE TALK ABOUT IT A LOT

But on a more individual level I have clients that ask me for " 5 Minute " programmes of exercises they can do daily, how often do they follow through and do it, sadly almost never. I discuss these issues with a Lifestyle Coach and to sum up our joint  thoughts would translate to something like this..instead of me (trainer ) telling you WHAT to do, but that both the trainer and the client should work together to come up with a compliancey solution. Instead of being told what to do we need to find or create new thought patterns,or habits, in affect we have 2 people working on one problem, not one telling the other what to do !

We discuss sleep and mainly the lack  there of. I can find any client 100 articles promoting the benefits of sleep, I can send these articles to my clients..I can find no research ( haven't really looked ) promoting a lack of sleep and its benefits. However, people may still not see the value in sleep and you then may have to look for the reasons... " why" .. ." Why do you not value sleep"? Its the a matter of understanding the clients sleep beliefs and the disregard for it may come from elsewhere in that persons life and history.

It appears that what people value most they do most, when it becomes the most important thing to that person they may end up complying. From a  trainers standpoint we want everyone to comply with what we suggest and if that persons belief system is different to ours  then we have difficulty in understanding why people do what they do. Perhaps the best way forward is to simply say " what can I do today thats going to help me towards my goals?" Do something, small , simple and achievable...

One thought that goes through my head is we just don't love ourselves enough , then I found this quote which sums it all up

"You can search throughout the entire universe for someone who is more deserving of our love and affection than you are yourself, and that person is not to be found anywhere. You, yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection." – Buddha

SOME INFO FROM THE UK.

I found the following information on Wikipedia to give you some idea of the problem health care faces in the UK
  • up to 90% of diabetes patients do not take their medication well enough to benefit from that medication
  • 33-50% of some cancer patients take less of their anti-cancer medicine than required.
  • only 75% of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients take sufficient medicine for it to be effective.
  • Up to 75% of hypertensive patients do not adhere to their medicine.
  • 41-59% of mentally ill patients take their medication infrequently or not at all.
  • 33% of patients with schizophrenia don’t take their medicine at all, and 33% are poorly adherent.
  • Less than 27% depressed patients adhere to their medication

In the UK, the societal impact of such high levels of non-compliance is significant:

  • 110,000 people per year die prematurely from coronary heart disease that is largely preventable. Death rates are three times higher in manual workers than among managers.
  • If CHD patients adhered to their medication, each year 40,000 – 50,000 fewer people would have a stroke and 25,000 would not have a heart attack.
  • 25% of cancer patients have to cut back on food shopping to cover the extra costs of cancer.
  • 70% of patients with advanced cancer suffer with pain, very often in conjunction with other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, anxiety, depression, sleeplessness, and confusion, amongst other symptoms.
  • 1,400 people die from asthma attacks each year, 90% of which are avoidable

The most common causes for lack of adherence appear  to be aging, lack of education, lack of information about the benefits ( of taking the prescribed medicine) and on, I also read that between 20 and 30 % of prescriptions in the US go unfilled.

So if the Fitness Industry is a mess what should we do?

What do I see in the future of the fitness industry? I recently devoted a blog to my thoughts on why its such a mess and out of control, it is after all a relatively new industry ,commercial gyms probably only came into being in the 1970`s, Personal Training, as we know it sometime in the late 80s... My point in short was that it has become a sort of cash cow preying on fear and emotion...( for example big box gyms like to exploit this ...my most recent work experience within such an environment had me hawking my services around at about a minimum investment of 5k, selling a minimum package of 50 sessions, this was somewhat painful if, in my professional opinion the client only needed 20 sessions , and after all its the " professional " you are paying for, as such I had to attempt to sell something that the person didn't really need, or indeed want )...yes folks it was all about the money, never about the client.

Needless to say client results ( those who had paid for a trainer), in my opinion were low and trainer turnover was high....it was like a semi successful business model , one side made a load of cash , the other side of the equation ... well, you know what I am saying.

My first observation I guess then across the whole industry is lets see clients as people not as a waking ATM machine, I once heard a training pressuring a client to come back and train again on the same day, yes, really.

Secondly lets put some regulations out there that mean something, anyone can own a franchise small box gym, a training studio, don't get me wrong it gets more opportunity  to people out there in places that weren't previously served , but hey can you imagine running a yoga studio and not having a clue about the discipline , not able to offer basic gym user advice is surely a recipe for disaster.

Yes its about business but really its not is it? Its about health.

It appears that anyone can open up a chain of weight loss clinics and franchise them to anyone who has the cash...there are many of these chains out there, are they any good at taking your cash and giving results...well they are good at one side of that equation too. Can you imagine giving cookie cutter weight loss advice too someone who is desperate ...would you feel guilty if you were selling like this...

Thirdly, I am bored with fad diets and the people who peddle them...book after book, do you know how many times in the last ten years of my career that some one has said to me " what do you think of Atkins, South Beach, Cabbage soup, hi fat , low fat, low carb ...latest book on Oprhey  etc etc" its crazy.. publishers wanting to cash in , fashions are fads eating healthy shouldn't be.

It drives people crazy as they jump on board the next train to " ten less pounds" to fall off at the first station. Ever notice how many people want to lose " ten pounds".... .The whole media , Tv , press, advertising should consider that pumping out health advice for profit isn't really helping.There are some great exceptions ( I like Dr Oz ..but even then he recommended something last year that was sweeping the nation so to speak , I even saw handwitten cards in a local supplement shop proclaiming basically you were going to lose 20lbs and live to a ripe old age if you took his product, emails swept around the net... and then.. nothing).

Everybody wants the scoop , then the next scoop...it fills up TV space. I saw a programme yesterday morning selling a treadmill with a desk built in so you could use your laptop and still use the treadmill, apart from the fact that its dangerous , stupid and  totally unnecessary the show just went right along recommending it, ITS WRONG GUYS. You have a responsibility to the nation to give good, impartial ( not product placed ) advice.

Fourthly, lets start thinking for ourselves, do we need reality TV shows to tell us our nutrition is crap, do we need another diet book to tell us what we are eating is wrong, do we need anymore people telling us to exercise more,eat more vegetables, get more sleep , guys we can do this for ourselves , we don't even need gyms... lets not be dictated to by some early morning chat show host who knows nothing about anything really let alone fitness , lets be mindful on what we are doing.

Just think where did your grandma go for advice on nutrition, she didn't she worked it out for herself.

From " Why " to " What Can I Do?" Lets do some positive....

I must admit I have been reading a lot recently, soon I will publish a reading list to help guide people out there who may be interested in helping themselves along the road to change...the most recent book I have enjoyed is The Weight Loss Prescription by Ali Zentner MD, its written so that anyone can learn from it. No its not a diet book. One of her most interesting sub chapters  is called " Stop Asking Why".It starts with the line" we are creatures of habit" , that got me thinking . With a client you can notice " habit " behaviours really quickly...ranging from cancelling often to bringing me in a treat...everyone has a set routine that they live by.Good or bad! However many clients are seeing a trainer because they want something to change, often they know that if behaviour changes the so does outcome. Getting someone to change behaviours is hard especially  when , for example , as a trainer you are well versed in exercise and maybe not so much in counselling.

Zentner continues to discuss why people do things? And concludes if asked people answer by saying " I just do" and that there are no answers to " why " questions . A common misconception she explains is that in to modify behaviour that you must figure out why you do what you do in order to fix it..but suggests that " we often discover the cause by finding the cure" . I thought that made perfect sense.If if you do find out why you do something, maybe through counselling, then she believes that people are conditioned to think that " I know the why.. now I can fix it" Countless times I have seen that thought process fail because people dwell on the " why" and get stuck when they should be doing something differently.When you find the " why " you need to take action.

For example: " Why don't I eat Better?"... "What can I do to eat better?"

" Why don't I exercise more?"....." What can I do to exercise more?"

The " what " is your way forward!! A place to start.Its great to know why but unless behaviour changes nothing happens.You can learn more from loosing weight than by talking about it!. Our behaviour is a reflection of who we are and how we think. Taking action can prompt our inspiration and our thoughts which in turn continues to promote our actions. And so on in a beneficial spiral.Actions are a powerful tool to reshaping how we think.

In future trade in the question " why am I unhealthy right now?" to " what can I do today to be healthier tomorrow" Ask the right question and reap the reward.

Its a great book ... go read it.

 

 

 

Whats Wrong with the Fitness Industry and why is it not working?

Been holding off on this topic for a long time but its time to share some thoughts on whats going wrong. Lets see ... more gyms than ever, more trainers than ever, more health fitness and diet books, TV shows offering advice .. more companies trying to sell you your dreams, endless lose weight franchises.. I could go on... do you see where I am going with this ...health in general is getting no better despite advice and facility availability  reaching an all time high...Nautropaths, holistic nutritionists, dieticians.... ten a dollar , personal trainers " qualifying " by the bus load, gyms open 24 hours at the end of the street dragging you , sometimes literally in the door...so how come the health of the nation at every level is getting worse.

Where do I point the finger?

1. Government... a client recently told me he was meeting with a senior ( very senior ) government minister to discuss " health programmes " , I can't go into further details but lets say it was a good job I wasn't meeting the guy ....what does the Government do now, when you think about it it scrapes by with the bare minimum of input . A couple of years ago they even raised HST on for example " personal training" , hardly encouraging and a pain for gyms and their owners. But what could Governments do ... lets see... what about taking fast food adverts of TV that are directly aimed at children.... what about more funding for schemes such as " Right to Play" , what about banning sponsorship by fast food companies of sporting events ...its been down with cigarettes, why not with junk food. Mind you some sports would fall apart without MacDonalds and Coca Cola`s funding...at Government level the list of educational and financial input could be endless... why not use some of that extra revenue raised through HST and put it back into health, what about subsidizing obese peoples gym memberships and allowing Personal Training to be available to these people through health care schemes..

2. Big Gyms: Always advertising on the radio and TV promoting themselves, but what do they give you? Ever walked around a big box gym ( lets say in May) and check out a class, 90 % plus of the people in the class don't really need to be there ...then 10 % who do need to be are not even really getting results . Are the wrong people going to the gym, do the people who really need to go ever sustain attending more than a couple of months ( they end up paying for the next 8 months as they either can't cancel membership or feel too guilty about giving up)...gyms can be intimidating to the people who need them the most...do you ever see a gym advert showing overweight people ..? Do they specifically try to help minority special populations...not really.

3. Personal Trainers; Possibly the worlds most unregulated " profession" , countless certification providers, no continuity , poorly educated , ( its not there fault by the way) and allowed to work in a industry whose standards should be questioned and thoroughly scrutinized . Did you know that a 3 day training course and a 2 hour exam is all it takes to become certified in this country , then you are licensed to " kill" so to speak. When you compare time spent " qualifying " as a trainer relative to other professions its laughable , would you let a doctor tell you what to do, diagnose you, offer you a health opinion if they had  40 hours max education. I think not. Things seriously have to change and I speak from very close personal experience as we take on board coop placement students from local colleges for work experience, what they lack to be considered " safe"  , even after 2 years of college ,is shocking and sad to see. There is no one out there providing uniform standards or qualification, no one governing body and no sight of one on the horizon. Did you know that anyone can call them selves a " personal trainer " regardless of qualification, would you trust your body and maybe even your life to someone who is $30 an hour on Craigslist who is actually showing you a photo of themselves shirtless and showing off their abs..is this what it has come down to...you are better than this people..

 

4. Magic Formula Weight loss centres: Hand over your credit card now, but before you do ask them for their success ratios ... I know of one that keeps it statistics looking good by throwing people off the programme if they are not losing weight...no wonder " results are guaranteed".. these places play on your emotions, sell you some product and then sell you some more. There is no magic formula, its all down to you...I approached one of these places recently offering training services for their clients....apparently "their clients don't need a trainer", flabbergasted I left...

The fitness has been turned into a cash cow as business see an opportunity to make some bucks, I won't point fingers but the list of bad boys out there is big and growing , be careful where you spend your hard earned..

Carbohydrates ... its not all bad !!!

"Carbohydrates" are probably one of the most discussed food subjects of the last ten years , maybe starting back at the time of the Atkins Diet (Low carb intake, High fat) through to more recently Dr  Natasha Turner` s 2012 book " Carbohydrate Sensitivity there has been a massive amount of information released across all aspects of the particular food group. Dr Turners book is an interesting read as it discusses the relationship between weight reduction, and the maintenance thereof when carbs are re introduced back into a persons diet where it has previously been removed .For some people the reintroduction of a particular carb produced weight gain for some the maintenance of the weight loss remained. Hence " all carbs are not created equal in their effect on different people" Everybody needs carbs as they are essential for life.The brain and the central nervous system require glucose ( made from carb breakdown) , if the dietary sources are insufficient then lean muscle mass is metabolized to make up the demand. The established daily minimum recommended intake is 130 grams.This level is affected by size, shape, demand, activity levels,however excessive carb intake will be stored as body fat for future use.

The speed at which carbs are digested and absorbed has a big influence on individual health and body composition.Lower glycemic ( slow release) carbs enhance satiety, blood sugar levels,insulin concentrations,energy levels,  and composition are found in vegetables,fruit, legumes and whole grains and should feature highly in a diet.

Conversely,high glycemic, refined carbs such as bread, white pasta,cereals, added sugars enter the body quickly , raising the blood sugar levels, LDL cholesterol and insulin resistance.This quick absorption can you leave you feeling like you need to eat more, and sooner than you would should you have rated slow release carbs.

Occasionally during and after exercise the body may require rapid refuelling , at this time insulin sensitivity is high, muscle uptake of glucose is rapid and carb resynthesis . This is the only time I tell my clients that they can have processed rapidly digested high GI carbs.This will quickly restore the bodies needs.